Строительство дома из кирпича

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26.01.2014

Лидирующее метсо среди материалов для возведения стен дома занимает кирпич. Кирпичная кладка позволяет построить крепкий, красивый и долговечный дом, а если его утеплить минватой снаружи, то и энергоэффективный. Очень много литературы описывает процесс кладки, но ни одна книга или видеоурок не сделают из вас профессинального каменщика. Мастерство красиво класть кирпич приходит с опытом и обучиться этому можно только непосредственно принимая участие в работе. В этой статье мы рассмотрим виды кирпичей, способы кладки, познакомимся с требованиями и правилами проведения этих работ.

Сплошную кладку кирпича с экономической точки зрения рекомендуется выполнять для возведения узких простенков (толщиной 0,5-0,7 м) несущих стен, а так же для внутренних перегородок шириной не меньше 25 см. Наружные стены можно выполнять из пустотелого кирпича, что повысит теплоизоляцию и уменьшит толщину стены до 51 см, хотя расход материала все-равно остается очень большим. Изготовление наружных стен из полнотелого материала толщиной в 2,5 кирпича (64 см) экономически невыгодно и более того не удовлетворяют СНиП.

Кладка с трехрядными диафрагмами позволяет значительно сэкономить на материале и повысить теплоизоляцию стен. Каждые пять продольных рядов перевязываются тремя горизонтальными, образуя диафрагму. Образовавшиеся пустоты заполняют утеплителем или легким бетоном.

Колодезная кладка представляет собой параллельные стенки, соединенные вертикальными диафрагмами. В этом случае необходимо устраивать армированную сеткой цементную стяжку, через каждые пять рядов.

Кирпично-бетонная анкерная кладка по своему исполнению похожа на колодезную, но не имеет вертикальных диафрагм. Анкеровку обеспечивают тычковые ряды, которые направлены во внутрь. Пространство между стенками заполняется легким бетоном.

Кладка с воздушной прослойкой укладывается по средствам многорядной перевязки. Воздушный промежуток составляет около 50 мм и играет роль теплоизоляции. Его можно заполнить теплоизоляционным материалом и улучшить изоляционные свойства. Утепляющую прослойку разделяют через каждые пять рядов тычковым рядом.

Облегчённая трёхслойная кладка с плитным утеплителем состоит из основной кладки (толщина 38 см для полнотелого или 25 для пустотелого кирпича), утеплителя (примерно 10 см) и облицовочной кладки. Две параллельные кладки имеют между собой металлические или специальные пластиковые связи. Такой вариант является самым предпочтительным из всех вышеперечисленных и очень распространен среди строителей. Технология напоминает конструкцию теплоблока и строительство дома из него.

Осталось определить несколько основных требований за выполнением которых необходимо следить при проведении работ. Не всегда работники про них знают, а некоторым просто лень их выполнять:

 - кладку цоколя здания необходимо производить полнотелым красным кирпичом, силикатный применять запрещено;

 - дымоходы дома, стены ванной комнаты и других помещений с повышенной влажностью, так же следуе выкладывать из красного кирпича;

 - гидроизоляцию фундамента дома следует выполнять двойную - по два слоя рубероида прокладывается на высоте 20 см от уровня отмостки и после завершения цоколя ( не менее 50 см от отмостки);

 - прочность кирпичной стены повышается если ее армировать кладочными сетками примерно через каждые пять рядов;

 - обязательным условием является контроль горизонтальности периметра кладки. В случае отсутствия на каждом углу специальных отметок уровня, то это значит, что каменщик пренебрегает этим правилом;

 - плиты перекрытий должны опираться только на тычковый ряд, т.е. под плитой в любой комнате мы должны видеть только тычки;

Лучший способ выразить благодарность автору - поделиться ссылкой на статью с друзьями!

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