Монолитные стены из железобетона

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17.11.2016

Технология заливки фундамента или стен довольно проста, но необходимо знать, что арматура должна иметь предварительное напряжение. В заводских условиях это просто, но и вручную можно выполнить некоторые действия…

Бетонные стены

В местах продольного соединения арматуры следует делать загибы в виде крючков, и сцеплять арматуру «в натяжку». На углах просто загибаем (а не стыкуем)! Всю арматуру лучше связывать вязальной проволокой, но не сваривать, т.к. при нагревании сваркой происходит отпуск металла.

Съемные опалубки

Форму заливаемого бетона можно сформировать только с помощью опалубки. Специальные металлические щиты (опалубок заводского производства), конечно удобнее, но можно обойтись опалубкой из досок, USB-панелей или других материалов. Необходимо надёжно скреплять внутренние щиты с наружными. Из-за большой вероятности повреждения опалубки под массой жидкого бетона, заливать приходится слоями (но лучше единой массой — в один приём) — это обязывает к применению дополнительного вертикального армирования слоев бетона!

Для того, чтобы бетон не затекал в щели и не присыхал к опалубке проще всего использовать полиэтиленовую плёнку. Другой вариант — трёхсантиметровый пеноплен. Он собирается «в замок» и не даст просочиться жидкому бетону, и оставаясь на стенах после снятия бетона будет работать в качестве дополнительного утеплителя.

Несъемные опалубки

Из всех разновидностей несъемных опалубок самая удобная — опалубка из плотного пенополистирола (пенопласт). В ней предусмотрены пазы под арматуру и возможен монтаж вентиляции, сантехники и электро-проводниковой продукции. Сама опалубка является отличным утеплителем! Собирается как конструктор «lego», и легко выдерживает по три-четыре ряда одновременной заливки. Хорошо держит штукатурку и (или) шпатлевку (но использование малярной сетки всё же желательно!).

Опалубки такого типа имеют ряд преимущество и рекомендуются специалистами.

Бетон

Заливочную массу лучше приготавливать собственноручно. Это позволит использовать в качестве наполнителя меловые породы (мрамор, доломит, природный мел и т.д.), что приводит к большей крепости, при марке бетона М200 или М300. Это происходит из-за сцепления с цементом на молекулярном уровне. При возведении цокольных этажей, или сырых помещений, в бетон добавляется пинетрон!

Лучший способ выразить благодарность автору - поделиться ссылкой на статью с друзьями!

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