Полив приусадебного участка

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15.02.2014
Полив приусадебного участка

Не для кого не секрет, что все растения на приусадебном участке нуждаются в регулярном поливе. Здесь нужно уточнить, что определенный вид растений требует индивидуального режима полива, поэтому одновременно организовать одинаковый полив всего приусадебного участка не получится. Зеленый газон требует практически ежедневного орошения, плодовый сад на участке или альпийская горка - реже поливается, отдельные виды растений поливаются только вечером или рано утром... Для решения этой проблемы были разработаны специальные поливные системы, которые широко применяются по всей территории нашей страны.

При планировании системы орошения вашего участка следует учесть такие факторы, как рельеф местности, состав почвы, наличие тени, количество осадков, средняя температура воздуха, глубина залегания грунтовых вод. В идеальном варианте можно пригласить ландшафтного инженера, который и рассчитает оптимальный вариант Вашего участка. Но если участок небольшой и средств на вызов специалиста у Вас нет, то можно и самому взяться за это дело, тем более, что все необходимые элементы поливных систем сегодня доступны каждому. Лучше конечно это проводить на этапе планирования приусадебного участка, когда еще есть возможность что-то изменить или добавить (например установить дополнительную емкость для полива).

Суть поливной системы заключается в подаче воды оттуда где ее достаточно, туда, где ее не хватает. Для большего удобства процесс должен быть максимально автоматизирован. Самый популярный и простой способ - полив дождеванием - разбрызгивание воды через специальные распылители (дождеватели). Такая система состоит из водяного насоса, труб (шланг) и самих дождевателей. Насос закачивает воду в шланги, создает необходимое давление, под которым вода вырывается наружу через дождеватели, имитируя при этом капли дождя. По своей конструкции дождеватели бывают фиксированные (или непрерывного типа, распыляют воду только под одним углом и с одним размером капель), вращающиеся (или круговые, угол полива может меняться), осциллирующего типа (позволяют более качественно произвести полив квадратного или прямоугольного участка) и выдвижные (спринклеры, после полива прячутся в землю).

Вращающийся (круговой) дождеватель

Дождеватель осциллирующего типа

Дождевание это очень эффективный метод, но не всем растениям он подходит. В этом случае используется система капельного полива или орошения. Особенность такого метода заключается в подаче воды  к корневой системе растения. Специальные пористые шланги прокладываются в непосредственной близости к корневому пространству растения или закапываются на небольшую глубину. Вода, в виде капель, непрерывно подается в грунт через специальные отверстия, расположенные по всей длине шланга. Такой метод эффективен не меньше предыдущего, при этом он позволяет дополнительно экономить воду. Капельный метод отлично подойдет для полива огородных овощей, винограда, малины, цветов и ягод, он широко используется в вертикальном озеленении разных элементов.

Если поливная система выполняется пластиковыми или металлическими трубами, закопанными в землю, необходимо позаботиться о специальных колодцах для слива воды из системы на зимний период времени. В противном случае морозы могут повредить целостность шланг и всей системы.

Для некоторых растений полив холодной проточной или колодезной водой недопустим и практически губителен. В этой ситуации воду лучше качать с какого-нибудь водоема, пруда или речки. Если таких вблизи нет, то предусматривают промежуточную емкость (бочку, цистерну, бак), вода в которой нагревается естественным образом от солнца.

Автоматический полив приусадебного участка дождеванием видео

Система капельного полива своими руками видео

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