Тунговое масло

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08.12.2014
Тунговое масло

Тунговое масло – очень жирное масло, которое получается прессованием орехов тунгового дерева, что принадлежит семейству молочайных. Еще известно это дерево, как китайское. Тунговое дерево, в основном, произрастает именно в Китае. Оно там использовалось столетиями, но в Европе и Западе представлено было лишь в конце 19 века. Также сегодня оно культивируется в Парагвае, Аргентине, США, в странах Африки. Население Японии и Китая уже в глубокой древности очень широко использовало тунговое масло, что добывалось наиболее примитивными способами. Именно ним и пропитывали все деревянные суда, благодаря его использованию делали также и водоотталкивающую ткань для обуви, крыш, зонтов и одежды.

 Все плоды тунгового дерева напоминают очень маленькие темно-коричневые яблоки, диаметр которых 6-7 сантиметров, и внутри которых под очень толстой кожурой прячутся довольно крупные твердые семена с белой маслянистой сердцевиной. Во всех этих семенах - самое главное богатство тунгового дерева. Именно они и содержат примерно 60-65% самого ценного тунгового масла, что является просто незаменимым сырьем для всей лакокрасочной промышленности, и которое дает очень эластичную, прочную, а также быстровысыхающую пленку, которая сильно устойчивая к воде, ко всем атмосферным влияниям, а также к действию различных химических реагентов. Краски и лаки на основе тунгового масла хорошо защищают от коррозии и от обрастания все стальные корпуса кораблей, а также придают дереву некоторую водонепроницаемость и предотвращают его гниение.

На две большие группы можно разделить все природные растительные материалы. Одни, к примеру, миндальное, оливковое, касторовое – длительное время на воздухе остаются жидкими, хоть и претерпевают постепенно разные изменения под действием кислорода, они окисляются. Иные, к примеру, маковое, льняное, тунговое – быстро образуют твердую пленку, которая прилипает к подложке, на которую и нанесено масло. Все подобные масла, которые называют высыхающие, очень широко используются в лакокрасочном производстве. Весь механизм высыхания масел окончательно никому не ясен, но вся его суть состоит именно в образовании пространственной высокополимерной сетки, которая и определяет все свойства пленки. Характер этой сетки полностью зависит от химического состава масла.

Все плоды тунгового дерева содержат очень ценное тунговое масло, но все, же не стоит его пробовать на вкус, потому как хоть и сладкое оно, но слишком ядовитое.

Тунговое масло просто уникальное по своему качеству, и оно дает качеству пленки прочность, долговечность, эластичность, и стоит обязательно добавить то, что оно отличается своим красивым блеском.

В отличие от льняного масла, именно тунговое масло полимеризуется не только лишь с поверхности, но и сразу по всей массе. Это свойство наиболее ценное, и именно благодаря ему все время высыхания маслянолаковой смеси, которая изготавливается из тунгового масла – всего лишь 9-10 часов, в то время, как у многих иных олиф – 24 часа и более.

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