Шлакоблок

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26.10.2016

Дома из шлакоблока в нашей стране появились довольно давно. Отходы тяжёлой промышленности необходимо было вывозить с территорий производств, и их стали использовать в производстве строительных материалов.

Разновидности шлакоблока. Шлакоблок различается наполнителем (но это никак не связано с особенностями строительства) и размерами.

1. Стандартный размер — 390 х 190 х 188 мм,

2. Полу-блок: а) 390 x 120 x 188; б) 390 x 90 x 188.

Вес шлакоблока зависит не только от его процентной пустотелости, но и от наполнителя, используемого при изготовлении (наполнитель — это, то что «запихали» в шлакоблок кроме цемента) — это может быть шлак, котельный шлак, базальтовая или гранитная крошка и т.д. ГОСТом определяется только марка и % количества цемента, а также размеры шлакоблока.

Виды шлакоблока

Вес: 1) полнотелый — 25-28 кг; 2) пустотелый — 16-23 кг; 3) полублок — 9-19 кг.

Отдельной категорией можно выделить облицовочный шлакоблок — он имеет вид «рубленного камня», однако вес и размеры те же, но может отличаться цвет. Для изменения цвета просто добавляют пигмент.

Использование различных видов шлакоблока. Маркировка стенных блоков по прочности (кг/см2): М 35; М 50; М 75; М 100; М 125. Но, проще и понятнее то, что более полнотелый шлакоблок крепче.

Полнотелые блоки используются на стенах цокольных этажей, и для колонн. Малопустотные — для нижних этажей, заборов или подсобных строений. Пустотелые используются для верхних этажей, или для всего дома (не включая цоколь), но с дополнительным усилением в районах дверных и оконных проёмов.

Толщина стен. Чем толще стены — тем крепче и теплее, тем более, что шлакоблок имеет большую теплопроводность! Но всему есть предел! При облегчённой крыше вообще можно строить в пол-шлакоблока (один ряд вдоль стены), и утеплять с двух сторон. Но при этом на дополнительную отделку затраты многократно превзойдут стоимость шлакоблока!

Дом из шлакоблока.

Юг России. Стены «в шлакоблок» (двойной ряд), или «в шлакоблок с четвертью» (с облицовкой декоративным полу-блоком), с утеплителем между рядами. В качестве утеплителя целесообразно использовать пенополистирол (пенопласт). Средняя полоса России. Шлакоблок с четвертью или  полтора шлакоблока (тройной ряд). Северные районы — тройной ряд, но с усиленным утеплением! «Тычковые» (связующие) ряды ведутся в два шлакоблока поперёк стены. Между внешней и внутренней складками ставится третий ряд, при этом остаётся два зазора по 100мм. Эти зазоры заполняются утеплителем! В условиях Крайнего Севера дополнительно монтируют вентилируемые фасады с утеплителем и пароизоляцией! Такой приём позволяет отодвинуть «точку росы» к внешней стороне стены, что уменьшает степень промерзания!

Лучший способ выразить благодарность автору - поделиться ссылкой на статью с друзьями!

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