Деревянный каркас из бруса

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20.11.2013
Деревянный каркас из бруса

В самом начале на поверхность бетонного фундамента укладывается гидроизоляция и первые брусья крепятся при помощи анкерных болтов. Этот этап строительства для каждого вида деревянного каркаса будет идентичным. При проведении работ следует уделять особое внимание всем диагоналям и горизонтальным уровням. Перекосов и значительных отклонений у стен бани быть не должно.

Для того, что бы построить деревянный каркас, необходимо большое количество строительного материала, а именно деревянных брёвен. Порода дерева может быть разнообразной, от обычной сосны до сибирской лиственницы. Хотя предпочтение всё-же отдают хвойным породам. Ёлки с соснами и дешевле и практичнее. Более того они меньше подвержены гниению. При этом диаметр стволов должен быть не меньше двадцати трёх сантиметров, а сами деревья - прямыми и ровными.

После приобретения брёвен, их необходимо очистить от коры. Этот процесс называется окорка. Благодаря этому, в избушке не заведутся незванные гости - насекомые-вредители. Работа не пыльная, но очень утомительная. К тому же это одно из основных правил при строительстве из дерева.  Очищать кору можно вручную, при помощи столярных инструментов, а можно и при помощи специальных приспособлений. Соединяются брёвна между собой в "чашку". Делается специальны пропил, которым бревно укладывается на другое бревно и не скатывается с него. Если выровнять брёвна и точно делать все пропилы, то брёвна ложаться друг на друга точно и без щелей.

Деревянный каркас из клееного бруса отличается от укладки брёвен тем, что брус поставляется уже готовый и не требует какой-либо обработки. Единственное, что требуется - это отрезать необходимую длину бруса и плотно уложить его на предыдущий. Специальные замки позволяют плотно укладываться брусьям и не давать в будущем усадки по высоте. Брусья могут быть предварительно обработаны специальными пропиточными материалами для для защиты древесины от влаги, плесени и насекомых. Это должно защитить деревянные стены бани от чрезмерной влаги и продлить срок службы всего строения.

Монтаж клееного бруса в стены напоминает сборку конструктора. Каждые пять рядов необходимо опроверять при помощи нивелира. После укладки брусьев, производится дополнительное проконопачивание углов замка. При строительстве стен для бани из бруса, брус может выполняться из разных пород древесины. Нижние слои могут быть выполнены например из лиственницы, а верхние - из хвойных пород.

Ещё одним способом укладки деревянного каркаса из деревянных брусьев является способ укладки замком ласточкин хвост. Этот способ представляет собой укладку деревянных квадратных брусьев с дополнительным утеплителем в соединительном замке, который после монтажа стен из брусьев напоминает очертания ласточкиного хвоста.

 

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